Cash-strapped Africa overwhelmed by COVID vaccine challenge

When Ghana obtained 50,000 COVID-19 vaccine doses from India last month, it hit a major roadblock: it had no longer trained sufficient personnel to distribute them.

The nation was nonetheless rolling out shots acquired in late February from the global vaccine-sharing scheme COVAX and did not have the potential to expand that operation, according to the head of Ghana’s immunization programme.

Rather than going straight into the arms of health workers, the extra doses have been put in cold storage in the capital Accra, Kwame Amponsa-Achiano informed, adding that his crew had obtained two days’ notice about the shipment.

“We were in the midway of the first campaign,” Amponsa-Achiano said. “How do you plan for 50,000 when you already are doing another campaign?”

The issues faced by Ghana, one of sub-Saharan Africa’s more economically developed nations, illustrate how a continent with experience in fighting lethal infectious ailments has found itself ill-prepared to inoculate its citizens against this pandemic.

Many African countries, already dealing with a scarcity of affordable vaccines, are being shocked by the unusual scale of the distribution challenge when doses do arrive.

Authorities do not have sufficient equipment like masks and cotton wool as a result of funding shortfalls that could total billions of dollars, in accordance to more than a dozen health professionals and some inner government files.

They additionally lack adequate personnel and training to distribute vaccines at short notice.

While Africa has thus in a way been quite unscathed by COVID-19, some professionals worry stuttering rollouts could draw out the outbreak in the region, potentially leading to greater deaths and economically adverse restrictions in a continent that is already the poorest in the world.

Benjamin Schreiber, the COVAX coordinator at the U.N. children’s organization UNICEF, stated logistical issues could mount in the coming weeks and months as nations tried to get vaccines to their overall populations.

“As we begin rolling out greater quantities, we are going to start seeing greater issues,” Schreiber said.

“The gaps in the healthcare systems will be the gaps that restrict the rollouts,” he added. “My worry is that we miss entire communities.”


Ghana, where the novel coronavirus has infected more than 91,000 and killed over 750, is regarded as one of the better-prepared nations in Africa to undergo a mass vaccination process due to the fact of its political stability and economic development.

The government targets to firstly inoculate 17.6 million people – about 1/2 of its populace – at a cost of $51.7 million, according to a national plan.

It hopes to cover $7.9 million of that money with a World Bank mortgage however is short of $43.8 million, described as a “funding gap” in the internal government document.

Immunization chief Amponsa-Achiano stated he was not informed that the situation had changed due to the fact the plan was formulated in February.

The Ghanaian finance and health ministries did not reply to requests for comment.

Ghana was the first nation in the world to receive a shipment from COVAX, taking delivery of 600,000 doses of the AstraZeneca/Oxford University vaccine, manufactured in India, on Feb. 24.

It began its vaccine drive on March 1 and had vaccinated 599,000 people by April 7.

While that vaccination charge is better than many of its African neigbour – Ivory Coast vaccinated just over 53,000 of the population between March 1 and April 6 – it is far behind the fastest nations globally. Britain, for example, administered doses to about two million people in roughly the first month of its drive.


The Ghanaian countrywide plan indicates how even relatively affluent African countries lack essential equipment.

Money is needed across the board, which includes $1.5 million for 11 walk-in cold rooms and over 650 fridges to preserve vaccines at between 2 and 8 degrees Celsius.

About $25 million is needed for supplies and waste management, along with 33,600 containers of face masks, 240,000 bottles of hand sanitizer, and almost 55,000 rolls of cotton wool, the plan says. About $21 million is needed to teach over 171,000 health professionals and volunteers.

To add to Ghana’s challenge, its subsequent COVAX shipments, expected in April and May, have been delayed till June, due to the fact India suspended major exports of vaccines manufactured there.

In its 2021 budget, outlined in mid-March, the Ghanaian government disbursed 929,296,610 cedis ($160 million) for vaccine acquisition and deployment.

Amponsa-Achiano said, though, it was not clear how much would go toward distribution, or when the funds would materialize.

It is a frequent problem in Africa, UNICEF’s Schreiber said.

“The question is at what point will this funding hit the ground? Will it be in time?”


Some African authorities are acquainted with deadly contagions. Since 2018, Congo has contained 4 Ebola outbreaks with a vaccine that ought to be stored at between -60 and -80 degrees Celsius.

But the scale of the COVID-19 vaccination effort is new.

COVAX – the donor scheme co-led by the World Health Organisation (WHO) – has delivered over 18 million doses to 41 African countries.

That’s the first wave in an effort anticipated to supply 600 million doses to Africa this year, enough to vaccinate 20% of their populations. Russia, China, and India have additionally donated some of their vaccines.

Funding is only one difficulty delaying vaccine rollouts.

Another is patchy record-keeping in many public health systems, which specialists say make it hard to pick out people who ought to be prioritized because of age or co-morbidities.

Demand for vaccinations is additionally weak in some nations due to distrust of health authorities, lack of training about the vaccines, and concerns about potential side effects.

Spotty electricity and terrible transport ion in some locations add to the challenge, while medical teams will have to negotiate safe passage throughout parts of the Democratic Republic of Congo, Mali, Somalia, and different locations where insurgencies rage.


John Nkengasong, who heads the Africa Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, says it could take till the end of 2022 to vaccinate 60% of the continent’s 1.3 billion people.

Take the challenge facing Mali, an impoverished nation battling an Islamist insurgency. It needs $14.7 million to distribute vaccines, which includes gasoline, vaccine storage, and training, according to internal government vaccination plans.

The government will need funding aid from the WHO, UNICEF, the GAVI vaccine alliance, and the World Bank, the plan says. Those corporations are all looking to grant funding to African countries going through shortfalls.

South Sudan, nonetheless racked by violence after a civil war ended in 2018, has observed COVID-19 infect at least 10,300 individuals and kill more than 100.

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It commenced distributing 132,000 vaccine doses from COVAX on April 7. However, authorities won’t begin administering vaccines outside the capital Juba and its surrounding county till May at the earliest, stated Kawa Tong, a member of a COVID-19 steering committee that advises the government.

“The key cause is the lack of money for a rollout outside Juba. The transport of vaccines, training of health workers, community outreach – all these are tied to funding,” Tong informed.

Adding to the difficulties, by May the wet season will be well underway, reducing transport routes to greater regions of the country, she said. The large majority of the 11 million-strong populace reside outside Juba county.

Atem Riek Anyom, director-general for primary healthcare at South Sudan’s health ministry, stated the government had requested World Bank funding, adding that vaccines would soon be deployed throughout the country.

“There’s no challenge in regards to the vaccine rollout,” he added.

The World Bank, which has a $12 billion fund to assist developing nations across the globe purchase and distribute vaccines, stated it was reviewing requests from Mali and South Sudan.

The bank stated it has authorized $2 billion to 17 countries, including seven in Africa: Ethiopia, Cape Verde, Ivory Coast, Eswatini, Tunisia, Rwanda, and the Gambia.

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